Porting to the Buffer.from/Buffer.alloc API


Finding problematic bits of code using grep

Just run grep -nrE '[^a-zA-Z](Slow)?Buffer\s*\(' --exclude-dir node_modules.

It will find all the potentially unsafe places in your own code (with some considerably unlikely exceptions).

Finding problematic bits of code using Node.js 8

If you’re using Node.js ≥ 8.0.0 (which is recommended), Node.js exposes multiple options that help with finding the relevant pieces of code:

You can set these flags using an environment variable:

$ export NODE_OPTIONS='--trace-warnings --pending-deprecation'
$ cat example.js
'use strict';
const foo = new Buffer('foo');
$ node example.js
(node:7147) [DEP0005] DeprecationWarning: The Buffer() and new Buffer() constructors are not recommended for use due to security and usability concerns. Please use the new Buffer.alloc(), Buffer.allocUnsafe(), or Buffer.from() construction methods instead.
    at showFlaggedDeprecation (buffer.js:127:13)
    at new Buffer (buffer.js:148:3)
    at Object.<anonymous> (/path/to/example.js:2:13)
    [... more stack trace lines ...]

Finding problematic bits of code using linters

Eslint rules no-buffer-constructor or node/no-deprecated-api also find calls to deprecated Buffer() API. Those rules are included in some pre-sets.

There is a drawback, though, that it doesn’t always work correctly when Buffer is overriden e.g. with a polyfill, so recommended is a combination of this and some other method described above.

Variant 1: Drop support for Node.js ≤ 4.4.x and 5.0.0 — 5.9.x.

This is the recommended solution nowadays that would imply only minimal overhead.

The Node.js 5.x release line has been unsupported since July 2016, and the Node.js 4.x release line reaches its End of Life in April 2018 (→ Schedule). This means that these versions of Node.js will not receive any updates, even in case of security issues, so using these release lines should be avoided, if at all possible.

What you would do in this case is to convert all new Buffer() or Buffer() calls to use Buffer.alloc() or Buffer.from(), in the following way:

Note that Buffer.alloc() is also faster on the current Node.js versions than new Buffer(size).fill(0), which is what you would otherwise need to ensure zero-filling.

Enabling eslint rule no-buffer-constructor or node/no-deprecated-api is recommended to avoid accidential unsafe Buffer API usage.

There is also a JSCodeshift codemod for automatically migrating Buffer constructors to Buffer.alloc() or Buffer.from(). Note that it currently only works with cases where the arguments are literals or where the constructor is invoked with two arguments.

If you currently support those older Node.js versions and dropping them would be a semver-major change for you, or if you support older branches of your packages, consider using Variant 2 or Variant 3 on older branches, so people using those older branches will also receive the fix. That way, you will eradicate potential issues caused by unguarded Buffer API usage and your users will not observe a runtime deprecation warning when running your code on Node.js 10.

Variant 2: Use a polyfill

Utilize safer-buffer as a polyfill to support older Node.js versions.

You would take exacly the same steps as in Variant 1, but with a polyfill const Buffer = require('safer-buffer').Buffer in all files where you use the new Buffer api.

Make sure that you do not use old new Buffer API — in any files where the line above is added, using old new Buffer() API will throw. It will be easy to notice that in CI, though.

Alternatively, you could use buffer-from and/or buffer-alloc ponyfills — those are great, the only downsides being 4 deps in the tree and slightly more code changes to migrate off them (as you would be using e.g. Buffer.from under a different name). If you need only Buffer.from polyfilled — buffer-from alone which comes with no extra dependencies.

Alternatively, you could use safe-buffer — it also provides a polyfill, but takes a different approach which has it’s drawbacks. It will allow you to also use the older new Buffer() API in your code, though — but that’s arguably a benefit, as it is problematic, can cause issues in your code, and will start emitting runtime deprecation warnings starting with Node.js 10.

Note that in either case, it is important that you also remove all calls to the old Buffer API manually — just throwing in safe-buffer doesn’t fix the problem by itself, it just provides a polyfill for the new API. I have seen people doing that mistake.

Enabling eslint rule no-buffer-constructor or node/no-deprecated-api is recommended.

Don’t forget to drop the polyfill usage once you drop support for Node.js < 4.5.0.

Variant 3 — manual detection, with safeguards

This is useful if you create Buffer instances in only a few places (e.g. one), or you have your own wrapper around them.


This special case for creating empty buffers can be safely replaced with Buffer.concat([]), which returns the same result all the way down to Node.js 0.8.x.



var buf = new Buffer(notNumber, encoding);


var buf;
if (Buffer.from && Buffer.from !== Uint8Array.from) {
  buf = Buffer.from(notNumber, encoding);
} else {
  if (typeof notNumber === 'number')
    throw new Error('The "size" argument must be of type number.');
  buf = new Buffer(notNumber, encoding);

encoding is optional.

Note that the typeof notNumber before new Buffer is required (for cases when notNumber argument is not hard-coded) and is not caused by the deprecation of Buffer constructor — it’s exactly why the Buffer constructor is deprecated. Ecosystem packages lacking this type-check caused numereous security issues — situations when unsanitized user input could end up in the Buffer(arg) create problems ranging from DoS to leaking sensitive information to the attacker from the process memory.

When notNumber argument is hardcoded (e.g. literal "abc" or [0,1,2]), the typeof check can be omitted.

Also note that using TypeScript does not fix this problem for you — when libs written in TypeScript are used from JS, or when user input ends up there — it behaves exactly as pure JS, as all type checks are translation-time only and are not present in the actual JS code which TS compiles to.


For Node.js 0.10.x (and below) support:

var buf;
if (Buffer.alloc) {
  buf = Buffer.alloc(number);
} else {
  buf = new Buffer(number);

Otherwise (Node.js ≥ 0.12.x):

const buf = Buffer.alloc ? Buffer.alloc(number) : new Buffer(number).fill(0);

Regarding Buffer.allocUnsafe

Be extra cautious when using Buffer.allocUnsafe:

Errors in handling buffers allocated with Buffer.allocUnsafe could result in various issues, ranged from undefined behaviour of your code to sensitive data (user input, passwords, certs) leaking to the remote attacker.

Note that the same applies to new Buffer usage without zero-filling, depending on the Node.js version (and lacking type checks also adds DoS to the list of potential problems).


What is wrong with the Buffer constructor?

The Buffer constructor could be used to create a buffer in many different ways:

This meant that, in code like var buffer = new Buffer(foo);, it is not possible to tell what exactly the contents of the generated buffer are without knowing the type of foo.

Sometimes, the value of foo comes from an external source. For example, this function could be exposed as a service on a web server, converting a UTF-8 string into its Base64 form:

function stringToBase64(req, res) {
  // The request body should have the format of `{ string: 'foobar' }`
  const rawBytes = new Buffer(req.body.string)
  const encoded = rawBytes.toString('base64')
  res.end({ encoded: encoded })

Note that this code does not validate the type of req.body.string:

Because of the missing type check, an attacker could intentionally send a number as part of the request. Using this, they can either:

Both of these scenarios are considered serious security issues in a real-world web server context.

when using Buffer.from(req.body.string) instead, passing a number will always throw an exception instead, giving a controlled behaviour that can always be handled by the program.

The Buffer() constructor has been deprecated for a while. Is this really an issue?

Surveys of code in the npm ecosystem have shown that the Buffer() constructor is still widely used. This includes new code, and overall usage of such code has actually been increasing.